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OXFORD BEFORE THE UNIVERSITY The Late Saxon and Norman Archaeology of the Thames Crossing, the Defences and the Town

Dodd, Anne and Mellor, Maureen and Munby, Julian and Robinson, Mark and Wilkinson, David and Allen, Leigh and Armour-Chelu, Miranda and Barclay, Alistair and Bertram, Jerome (Fr) and Blair, John and Booth, Paul and Boyle, Angela and Campbell, Gregory and Channer, Jill and Durham, Brian and Ellis, Blanche and Goodall, Alison and Goodall, Ian and Greig, James and Hillam, Jennifer and King, Cathy and Litten, Julian and Lyon, Stuart and MacGregor, Arthur and McKeague, Peter and Macphail, Richard and Mayhew, Nicholas and Metcalf, Michael and Marshall, Peter and Miles, Dan and Powell, Philip and Ramsay, Nigel and Rigold, Stuart and Roe, Fiona and Rogers, Nicola and Terry, Stephen and Underwood-Keevill, Cathy and Whittingham, Lucy and Wilson, Bob and Adams, Luke and Cheshire, Steven and Collett, Lesley and Hemming, Erica and Hughes, Paul and Lucas, Sarah and Nichols, Karen and Lorimer, Peter and Smith, Rosalyn and Whitby, Samantha (2003) OXFORD BEFORE THE UNIVERSITY The Late Saxon and Norman Archaeology of the Thames Crossing, the Defences and the Town. Other. Oxford Archaeology.

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Cover.pdf

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Title Page.pdf

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List of Context, Figures, Plates & Tables.pdf

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Summary & Acknowledgements.pdf

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Chapter 1 - Introduction.pdf

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Chapter 2 - Synthesis & Discussion.pdf

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Chapter 3 - The Oxenford Detailed Studies of the Thames Crossing in St Aldates.pdf

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Chapter 4 - The Defences - Detailed studies of Sites on the Defences of Late Saxon & Medieval Oxford.pdf

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Chapter 5 - The Town - Detailed Studies of Sites Within the Late Saxon & Medieval Town.pdf

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Chapter 6 - Finds.pdf

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Chapter 7 - The Environmental Remains.pdf

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Appendix 1 - Gazetteer of Anglo-Saxon & Medieval Archaeological Sites in the City Centre.pdf

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Appendix 2 - Dating Results.pdf

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Abbreviations.pdf

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Bibliography.pdf

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Index.pdf

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Abstract

The name of the city of Oxford is virtually synonymous throughout the world with that of Oxford University. At the time of its emergence in the historical record, however, the university had taken root in what was already a thriving medieval town. The broad, shallow floodplain of the river Thames had encouraged the development of a major river crossing at Oxford, probably from as early as the 7th century AD, and this crossing provided both a focus for a permanent settlement, and the name of Oxford by which the settlement came to be known. The strategic importance of the site is reflected in the probable establishment of St Frideswide's Minster by the end of the 7th century, and the subsequent development of Oxford as a burh, or centre of defence against the Vikings, by 911-12. The late Saxon burh was provided with a defensive rampart and ditch, and the interior was divided up into a grid of metalled streets. By the early 11th century Oxford had become a prosperous urban centre, with intensively developed street frontages, numerous churches, and a mint. Following the Norman Conquest of 1066, a motte and bailey castle was constructed over the western part of the Saxon town. There seems to have been a significant short-lived decline in Oxford's fortunes after the Conquest, but recovery was underway by the end of the 11th century when a major stone causeway, the Grand-pont, was built across the floodplain. Numerous churches and monastic houses were founded at Oxford during the 12th century, and Henry I built a palace outside the northern walls. Subsequently the town was a major strategic centre during the Anarchy of 1135-54. By the end of the 12th century, when the existence of a fledgling university is first apparent, Oxford was prospering once again. There was rapid expansion into northern, southern, eastern and western suburbs, and the citizens acquired a municipal seal (the oldest known in Britain) by 1191. The seal depicts a walled city with the figure of an ox superimposed on it, expressing as succinctly as any modern advertising logo both the city's origins and its corporate pride in its success. This volume presents a comprehensive account of archaeological research into the origins and development of Oxford during this period. It includes reports on some 18 previously unpublished archaeological sites, accompanied by chapters on their finds, animal bone and environmental assemblages. These are treated thematically, and cover the Thames Crossing, the defences, and the developing town with its streets, properties, houses and churches. The detailed site reports are preceded by a synthesis and discussion of the evidence, which traces the development of theories about the Anglo-Saxon town and reviews the many problems and uncertainties that still exist. This discussion is supported by a gazetteer of relevant archaeological observations in the historic core of the city. The reports on the Thames Crossing sites are preceded by a detailed review of the development of the river Thames and its floodplain at Oxford.

Item Type:Monograph (Other)
Subjects:Geographical Areas > English Counties > Oxfordshire
Period > UK Periods > Medieval 1066 - 1540 AD
ID Code:5868
Deposited By: Scott
Deposited On:16 Nov 2020 11:49
Last Modified:16 Nov 2020 11:49

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